Ingredient List: Uridine Monophosphate Powder
Uridine is a nucleotide base which is used for increasing synthesis of cellular membranes and for other neurological properties. It appears to have potentially cognitive enhancing properties, and is synergistic with fish oil.
Uridine is known to be bypass the blood brain barrier and is taken up by one of two transporters, one class being known as equilibrative (SLC29 family; specifically the transporters ENT1, ENT2, and ENT3) which are low affinity (100–800μM range) and sodium independent and concentrative (SLC28 family consisting of ENT4 as well as CNT1, 2, and 3) which are sodium dependent active transporters with higher affinity (1-50μM).
Uridine is used as a substrate from which CDP-Choline is synthesized from (albeit before the rate-limiting step) vicariously through cytidine. Provision of cytidine (synthesized from uridine) is the rate-limit in the above pathway, and providing extra cytidine to cells or brain slices under adequate choline concentrations accelerates CDP-Choline synthesis. Uridine is demonstrated to have the same property via converting into cytidine through initial conversion to uridine triphosphate (UTP) and then CTP and this has been confirmed in a living model.
One study using a brand name called Cognitex (50mg Uridine-5'-Monophosphate, but otherwise highly confounded with 600mg Alpha-GPC, 100mg Phosphatidylserin, 50mg Pregnenolone, 20mg Vinpocetine and others) that 3 capsules daily for 12 weeks in an open-label study noted improvements in spatial short term memory, recognition, recall, attention, and executive functions which increased further after 10 more weeks of supplementation.
Study: Cognitex supplementation in elderly adults with memory complaints: an uncontrolled open label trial.
The components of the nutritional supplement Cognitex have been individually shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function. We evaluated the efficacy of the nutritional supplement in improving cognitive function in elderly with memory complaints.
Thirty participants received three capsules of the nutritional supplement per day for 12 weeks in an open label study. Efficacy and safety measures, assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 12 weeks of treatment, included cognitive evaluation using a computerized cognitive assessment tool, vital signs measurements, and physical examination.
Twenty-six participants completed the 12-week study. A significant improvement in memory abilities (recall, recognition, and spatial short term) was observed following 2 weeks of Cognitex treatment (mean change from baseline: 11.15 ± 2.90, 8.68 ± 2.50, and 19.85 ± 6.19, respectively). Attention (sustained and focused), visual learning, and activities of daily living (executive functions and mental flexibility) were improved as well following this short supplementation period (mean change from baseline: 9.46 ± 3.80, 3.76 ± 1.50, 17.31 ± 5.33, 9.45 ± 3.73, and 9.92 ± 4.08, respectively). After 10 additional treatment weeks, activities of daily living demonstrated an additional statistically significant improvement while the beneficial effect observed for the rest of the tested parameters remained unchanged.
The results indicate that the nutritional supplement may improve cognitive performance in elderly with memory complaints; however, further blinded and placebo-controlled studies are needed.
Clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00719953.
Study: Independent blood-brain barrier transport systems for nucleic acid precursors.
Abstract - The blood-brain barrier permeability to certain 14-C-labelled purine and pyrimidine compounds was studied by simultaneous injection in conjunction with two reference isotopes into the rat common carotid artery and decapitation 15s later. The amount of 14-C-labelled base or nucleoside remaining in brain was expressed in relation to 3-H2O (a highly diffusible internal standard) and 113m-In-labelled EDTA (an essentially non-diffusible internal standard). Of the 17 compounds tested, measurable, saturable uptakes were established for adenine, adenosine, guanosine, inosine and uridine. Two independent transport systems in the rat blood-brain barrier were defined. One transported adenine (Km equals 0.027 mM) and could be inhibited with hypoxanthine. Adenosine (Km equals 0.018 mM), guanosine, inosine and uridine all cross-inhibit, defining a second independent nucleoside carrier system. Adenosine inhibited [14-D]uridine uptake more effectively than did uridine, suggesting a weaker affinity of uridine for this nucleoside carrier.
Study: Effect of oral CDP-choline on plasma choline and uridine levels in humans.
Abstract - Twelve mildly hypertensive but otherwise normal fasting subjects received each of four treatments in random order: CDP-choline (citicoline; 500, 2000, and 4000 mg) or a placebo orally at 8:00 a.m. on four different treatment days. Eleven plasma samples from each subject, obtained just prior to treatment (8:00 a.m.) and 1-12 hr thereafter, were assayed for choline, cytidine, and uridine. Fasting terminated at noon with consumption of a light lunch that contained about 100 mg choline. Plasma choline exhibited dose-related increases in peak values and areas under the curves (AUCs), remaining significantly elevated, after each of the three doses, for 5, 8, and 10 hr, respectively. Plasma uridine was elevated significantly for 5-6 hr after all three doses, increasing by as much as 70-90% after the 500 mg dose, and by 100-120% after the 2000 mg dose. No further increase was noted when the dose was raised from 2000 to 4000 mg. Plasma cytidine was not reliably detectable, since it was less than twice blank, or less than 100 nM, at all of the doses. Uridine is known to enter the brain and to be converted to UTP; moreover, we found that uridine was converted directly to CTP in neuron-derived PC-12 cells. Hence, it seems likely that the circulating substrates through which oral citicoline increases membrane phosphatide synthesis in the brains of humans involve uridine and choline, and not cytidine and choline as in rats.
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Keep out of the reach of children. Do not take this or any other supplement if under the age of 18, pregnant or nursing a baby, or if you have any known or suspected medical conditions and/or taking prescription drug(s) or OTC medication(s). Always consult with a qualified health physician before taking any new dietary supplement.