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Ingredient List: Phenylpiracetam Powder, Maltodextrin (excipient), Vegetable Cellulose (capsules), Magnesium Stearate (excipient), Silicon Dioxide (excipient).
Phenylpiracetam (structual name (RS)-2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide and the brand name of either Phenotropil or Carphedon) is a Piracetam derivative that has an additional phenyl group at position 4 of the 2-oxopyrrolidine ring. It is reported (from the manufacturer) to be rapidly and well absorbed due to the enhanced lipophilicity and exerts more anti-amensiac, neuroprotective, and stimulatory effects than does piracetam|published=2007 Mar-Apr|authors=Tiurenkov IN, Bagmetov MN, Epishina VV|journal=Eksp Klin Farmakol] Phenylpiracetam (Phenotropil) is a part of the racetam family, and as its name suggests it is a phenyl- derivative of piracetam. Phenylpiracetam is reported to be more neuroprotective than piracetam is, but also possesses psychostimulatory properties and is reported to enhance physical performance. There is a fair bit of research to suggest that phenylpiracetam is effective, like other racetam drugs, in attenuating the rate of and symptoms of cognitive decline.
Study: Piracetam and piracetam-like drugs: from basic science to novel clinical applications to CNS disorders.
Abstract - There is an increasing interest in nootropic drugs for the treatment of CNS disorders. Since the last meta-analysis of the clinical efficacy of piracetam, more information has accumulated. The primary objective of this systematic survey is to evaluate the clinical outcomes as well as the scientific literature relating to the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, mechanism of action, dosing, toxicology and adverse effects of marketed and investigational drugs. The major focus of the literature search was on articles demonstrating evidence-based clinical investigations during the past 10 years for the following therapeutic categories of CNS disorders: (i) cognition/memory; (ii) epilepsy and seizure; (iii) neurodegenerative diseases; (iv) stroke/ischaemia; and (v) stress and anxiety. In this article, piracetam-like compounds are divided into three subgroups based on their chemical structures, known efficacy and intended clinical uses. Subgroup 1 drugs include piracetam, oxiracetam, aniracetam, pramiracetam and phenylpiracetam, which have been used in humans and some of which are available as dietary supplements. Of these, oxiracetam and aniracetam are no longer in clinical use. Pramiracetam reportedly improved cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injuries. Although piracetam exhibited no long-term benefits for the treatment of mild cognitive impairments, recent studies demonstrated its neuroprotective effect when used during coronary bypass surgery. It was also effective in the treatment of cognitive disorders of cerebrovascular and traumatic origins; however, its overall effect on lowering depression and anxiety was higher than improving memory. As add-on therapy, it appears to benefit individuals with myoclonus epilepsy and tardive dyskinesia. Phenylpiracetam is more potent than piracetam and is used for a wider range of indications. In combination with a vasodilator drug, piracetam appeared to have an additive beneficial effect on various cognitive disabilities. Subgroup 2 drugs include levetiracetam, seletracetam and brivaracetam, which demonstrate antiepileptic activity, although their cognitive effects are unclear. Subgroup 3 includes piracetam derivatives with unknown clinical efficacies, and of these nefiracetam failed to improve cognition in post-stroke patients and rolipram is currently in clinical trials as an antidepressant. The remaining compounds of this subgroup are at various preclinical stages of research. The modes of action of piracetam and most of its derivatives remain an enigma. Differential effects on subtypes of glutamate receptors, but not the GABAergic actions, have been implicated. Piracetam seems to activate calcium influx into neuronal cells; however, this function is questionable in the light of findings that a persistent calcium inflow may have deleterious impact on neuronal cells. Although subgroup 2 compounds act via binding to another neuronal receptor (synaptic vesicle 2A), some of the subgroup 3 compounds, such as nefiracetam, are similar to those of subgroup 1. Based on calculations of the efficacy rates, our assessments indicate notable improvements in clinical outcomes with some of these agents.
Study: Comparative evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of phenotropil and piracetam in laboratory animals with experimental cerebral ischemia.
Abstract - The neuroprotective properties of phenotropil and piracetam were studied in Wistar rats with low and high sensitivity with respect to cerebral ischemia caused by bilateral irreversible simultaneous occlusion of carotid arteries and gravitational overload in craniocaudal vector. In addition, the effects of both drugs on microcirculation in the brain cortex under ischemic injury conditions were studied. Phenotropil and (to a lower extent) piracetam reduced the extent of neuralgic deficiency manifestations, retained the locomotor, research, and memory functions in animals with gravitational cerebral ischemia, increased the survival of experimental animals, and favored the restoration of local cerebral flow upon the occlusion of carotid arteries.
Study: Pharmacological characteristics of a new phenyl analog of piracetam--4-phenylpiracetam.
Abstract - The central neurotropic effects of 4-phenylpyracetam, a new phenyl analog of pyracetam, were studied and compared with the effects of pyracetam, morpholene and 4-phenylpyrrolidone. 4-Phenylpyracetam was found to activate the operant behavior more powerfully, to remove psychodepressant effects of diazepam, to inhibit post-rotational nystagmus, and to prevent the development of retrograde amnesia. Unlike pyracetam, 4-phenylpyracetam exhibits a specific anticonvulsant action. When given in high doses, the compound under study produces psychodepressant effects.
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These statements have not been evaluated by the Food & Drug Administration. This product is not approved by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any diseases.
Keep out of the reach of children. Do not take this or any other compound if under the age of 18, pregnant or nursing a baby, or if you have any known or suspected medical conditions and/or taking prescription drug(s) or OTC medication(s). Always consult with a qualified health physician before taking any new compound.
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