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Ingredient List: Oxiracetam Powder
Oxiracetam (full name of 4-hydroxy-2-oxo-pyrrolidinoacetamide and classification of ISF-2522) is a synthetic racetam molecule of the pyrrolidinone class with no known food sources, chemically derived from the parent racetam compound Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinoacetamide) where the difference is the addition of a hydroxyl group upon the 4-carbon.
Oxiracetam is a positive AMPA modulator similar in mechanism and potency (but not binding site) to both piracetam and aniracetam but may have an additional benefit of increasing glutamate, acetylcholine, and D-aspartic acid release from activated but not resting neurons. This two-fold sequence (enhancing glutamate release and then positively modulating one of the receptors it signals through) ultimately increases metabolic activity in neuronal cells and memory formation.
Mechanistically, oxiracetam appears to increase long term potentiation (LTP) in isolated hippocampal slices at 1µM similar to Aniracetam. This increased signalling efficiency in hippocampal cells is thought to be related to both an increased release of glutamate and D-aspartic acid from hippocampal cells when activated at a concentration of 0.01-5µM (without affecting outflow of glutamate or D-AA when the neurons were not activated) and enhancing glutaminergic signalling via AMPA receptors, which oxiracetam is a positive modulator of and AMPA receptors are the ones mediating late expression of LTP.
Study: The effects of oxiracetam (ISF 2522) in patients with organic brain syndrome (a double‐blind controlled study with piracetam)
Abstract - In a double‐blind controlled trial, the clinical effects of oxiracetam, a new “nootropic” compound, were investigated in a group of 60 elderly patients with organic mental disorders (DSM‐III). The starting dose of both oxiracetam and the control drug, piracetam, was 400 mg. The dosage was increased by 400 mg at weekly intervals up to 2,400 mg daily (sixth week). During the following 6 weeks the administered dose was fixed at 2,400 mg daily. Most of the important target symptoms improved significantly over time, both subjectively (i.e., rating scales) and objectively (i.e., psychological tests), after administration of either oxiracetam or piracetam. In comparison to piracetam, oxiracetam exhibited more statistically significant improvement in the memory factor, whereas piracetam showed more improvement than oxiracetam in factors of paranoid ideation and agitation. Both drugs were tolerable and did not elicit any significant side effects. It was postulated that “nootropics” may represent a new group of CNS effective compounds, and thus be a “second generation” of psychotropics, which have more direct effects on the central target organs than are presently found in the “classical” psychotropics.
Study: Chemistry and pharmacology of nootropics 
Abstract - The paper discusses the chemistry and pharmacology of the nootropics, reviewing the new chemical entities to recently emerge and in particular the five‐membered heterocyclic lactams belonging to the pyrrolidinone class, such as piracetam and oxiracetam. These gammalactams are related to the folded conformation of GABA, which seems to play a role in the uptake mechanisms—that is, in the transport of GABA across the membranes into different nervous tissue elements. The classification of nootropics is discussed, taking into consideration the six main criteria recently suggested, which are: no direct vasoactivity, no change in basic rhythm of EEG activity, blood brain barrier passage, positive metabolic activity in humans and animals, low incidence of side‐effects, and objective demonstration of clinivicacy. A critical analysis is made of the various pharmacological and biochemical models employed to screen the nootropics, including a new approach based on the impaired learning rate of spontaneously hypertensive rats with cerebrovascular lesions. The activity of the new GABA‐derivative nootropic called oxiracetam is also described and compared with the forerunner of the class, piracetam.
Study: Effect of the nootropic drug oxiracetam on field potentials of rat hippocampal slices 
- 1 The effect of the nootropic drug oxiracetam on hippocampal neurotransmission was investigated in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampal slice in vitro by use of extracellular recordings.
- 2 Superfusion of oxiracetam (0.1–100 μm) produced a concentration‐dependent, wash‐resistant (>90 min), increase in initial slope and amplitude of the dendritic field excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.). This increase was maximal at a concentration of 1 μm (70%).
- 3Input‐output curves relating the initial slope to the amplitude of the afferent volley were significantly (P < 0.05) steeper and showed a greater maximal response in the presence of 1 μm oxiracetam than in control conditions.
- 4 Two trains of high frequency stimulation (100 Hz, 0.4 s, 5 min apart) delivered in the stratum radiatum 30 min after washout of oxiracetam (1 μm) still elicited a long‐term potentiation (LTP) of the field e.p.s.p. However, the absolute magnitude of the LTP produced did not differ from that obtained in untreated slices.
- 5 After induction and establishment of LTP, oxiracetam (1 μm) had a smaller (27%) and reversible effect on the evoked field e.p.s.p.
- 6 d‐2‐Amino‐5‐phosphonopentanoic acid (AP‐5), at the same concentration (50 μm) which in our conditions prevented the induction of LTP, blocked the action of 1 μmoxiracetam and strongly depressed the effect of higher concentrations of the nootropic drug.
- 7 It is concluded that oxiracetam provokes an enduring increase of neurotransmission in the CA1 rat hippocampal region. This action appears to share some features with LTP as indicated by its persistence, sensitivity to AP‐5 and lack of additivity with electrically‐induced LTP.
Study: Effects of oxiracetam on neurotransmitter release from rat hippocampus slices and synaptosomes.
Abstract - The effects of the nootropic drug oxiracetam on the K(+)-evoked overflow of [3H]D-aspartic acid ([3H]D-ASP), [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh), [3H] gamma-aminobutyric acid ([3H]GABA), [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) and [3H]5-hydroxytryptamine ([3H]5-HT) have been studied in superfused rat hippocampal slices. The overflow of [3H]D-ASP was enhanced by low concentrations of oxiracetam (0.01-1 microM) but not by high concentrations (10-100 microM) which showed some tendency to inhibit it. Similarly, low concentrations of oxiracetam increased, although less effectively, the depolarization-evoked overflow of [3H]ACh, whereas higher concentrations were without effect. At the concentrations active on [3H]D-ASP and [3H]ACh overflow oxiracetam did not affect that of [3H]GABA, [3H]NA or [3H]5-HT. The oxiracetam effects present in slices could not be observed in hippocampal synaptosomes. Thus oxiracetam may selectively increase the release of glutamate and acetylcholine in hippocampus by a mechanism which appears not to be sited in the releasing nerve terminals.
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